also known as Urad is a bean grown in Indian and southern Asia. Black gram originated in South Asia, where it has been in cultivation from ancient times and is one of the most highly prized pulses of India. It is very widely used in Indian cuisine. In India the Black gram is one of the important pulses grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons. This crop is extensively grown in Nagapattinam, Thiruvarur, Cuddalore, Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli, and Villupuram districts of Tamilnadu . The Coastal Andhra region in Andhra Pradesh is known for black gram. The Guntur District ranks first in Andhra Pradesh for the production of black gram.
It is an erect, sub-erect or trailing, densely hairy annual herb. The tap root produces a branched root system with smooth, rounded nodules. Stems are less than 1 m tall, solid. Leaves are alternate, stalked. Leaves are trifoliate. Flowers arise in clusters or few-flowered racemes, 2-6 flowers, in leaf axils. Petals are orange or yellow, standard petal suborbicular, broadly rounded, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong. Wing petals eared. The pods are narrow, cylindrical and up to 6 cm long. The bean is boiled and eaten whole or after splitting into dal - prepared like this it has an unusual mucilaginous texture. Ground into flour or paste, it is also extensively used in South Indian culinary preparation like dosa, idli, vada, and papadum. When used this way, the white lentils are usually used. It is an erect, suberect or trailing, densely hairy, annual bush. The tap root produces a branched root system with smooth, rounded nodules. The pods are narrow, cylindrical and up to six cm long. The plant grows 30–100 cm with large hairy leaves and 4–6 cm seed pods.
It is also extensively used in South Indian culinary preparations. Black gram is one of the key ingredients in making idli and dosa batter, in which one part of black gram is mixed with three or four parts of idli rice to make the batter. Vada or udid vada also contain black gram and are made from soaked batter and deep-fried in cooking oil. The dough is also used in making papadum, in which white lentils are usually used.