Guggal called myrrh,
African myrrh, herabol myrrh, Somali myrrhor, common myrrh, or gum myrrh is a tree in the Burseraceae family. It is one of the primary trees used in the production of myrrh, a resin made from dried tree sap. The tree is native to the Arabian pennisula and to Africa. It is called 'mur' in Arabic, meaning bitter. It is the gum of the myrrh tree. Its oil is called oleoresin. It famously comes from Mecca, so it is called 'Mur Makki'.
It is anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-pest and can be used for fumigation or oral use. It has been used as an astringent, antiseptic, anti-parasitic, anti-tussive, emmenagogue, and anti-spasmodic agent. It was commonly included in mixtures used to treat worms, wounds, and sepsis.
Guggal is a flowering plant which produces a fragrant resin called guggal. It grows as a shrub or small tree, reaching a maximum height of 4 m, with thin papery bark. The branches are thorny. Leaves are simple or trifoliate, the leaflets ovate, 1-5 cm long, 0.5-2.5 cm broad, and irregularly toothed. It is gynodioecious, with some plants bearing bisexual and male flowers, and others with female flowers. The individual flowers are red to pink, with four small petals. The small round fruit are red when ripe. It is the source of Guggul or Indian Bdellium, a gum-resin that exudes from the branches. It is largely used as an incense, in medicine and perfumery, and as a substitute for African Bdellium. It is also used to adulterate myrrh. Guggal is found in Pakistan and India. Flowering: November-July.
The extract of gum guggal, called gugulipid, guggulipid, or guglipid, has been used in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine, for nearly 3,000 years in India. One chemical ingredient in the extract is the steroid guggulsterone, which acts as an antagonist of the farnesoid X receptor, once believed to result in decreased cholesterol synthesis in the liver. However, several studies have been published that indicate no overall reduction in total cholesterol occurs using various dosages of guggulsterone and levels of low-density lipoprotein ("bad cholesterol") increased in many people.
A related species, is not a source of Guggal. Guggal is used to make medicine. Guggal is used for indigestion, ulcers, colds, cough, asthma, lung congestion, arthritis pain, cancer, leprosy, spasms, and syphilis. It is also used as a stimulant and to increase menstrual flow.