Fever Nettle is a medicinal plant belonging to the urticaceae family. Scientific name: Urtica parviflora, Laportea Crenulata. The plant is found mostly in Assam and Sikkim and grows widely up to 1500 m. in the Western-Ghats of Kerala .
The roots of Fever Nettle were collected in Bangladesh and the bioactivity was evaluated by two bioassays. The brine shrimp lethality test and the antibacterial activity were conducted on the different organic solvent root extracts of this plant. In addition minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial dilution technique.
It is locally known as Agnichutra and is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries including Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Srilanka, Malaysia, and Indonesia.
Fever Nettle is an evergreen shrub, 2–3 m high or small tree, branches stout, terete. Green leaves are 23–25 cm, base acute obtuse cordate or notched, nerves 12–16 pairs; petiole stout, 3–10 cm; stipules ovate lanceolate cymes longer than the petioles, dichotomously branched; flower-cluster remote, often unilateral; flowers subsessile.
It can be described as a shrub or small tree growing up to three or four meters in height. The whole plant has small hairs. Stems slender. Leaves simple, alternate, distichous; Leaves oblong or lanceolate, 12-30 cm long. It is long and thick. The stamens are very small. Male and female flowers on separate plants. Inflorescence axillary racemes. The flowers are very small. Male flowers have four or five petals and stamens. Female flowers relatively small, with three or four petals. Thick; Inflorescence axillary racemes. The fruit is achene.
The roots of this plant are used as a folk medicine in the treatment of nose bleeding, constipation, weakness, asthma, gout, mumps, whooping cough, and chronic fever. The roots of this plant also have stimulant, stomachic, and diuretic properties.
The stems, leaves and flowers of Fever Nettle are poisonous. The toxin it contains is formic acid. It also contains lecithin, carbolic acid, ammonia and various salts. The infusion made from its roots can be taken to reduce fever. Its roots and leaves can be rubbed and applied externally for body fluids and swelling. It is also used to treat urinary tract infections and bleeding.